White Horse Inn Blog

Know what you believe and why you believe it

Days of Disappointment

The Colorado Springs Gazette reported last July that a local woman had placed ads on ten bus-stop benches alerting passersby that Jesus Christ will return to earth on May 21, 2011. The woman is a believer in the eschatological calculations of one Harold Camping, the 89-year-old preacher behind “worldwide Christian ministry” Family Radio, whose analysis of the Bible further proposes that the end of the world will follow five months after Christ’s return, on October 21, 2011—one year from [yesterday].

Camping is hardly the first Christian to fixate on predicting the end of time, but his designation of precise dates in the near future does put him in a special class. Countless Christian figures beginning with Jesus have said that the world as we know it would end “soon.” Some have given vague predictions in the more or less distant future, such as Joseph Smith, Jr., the founder of Mormonism, recorded in his thirties that a seemingly annoyed God had told him that the end would not come before his 85th year and so to quit asking. But only a brave few have called out specific dates in the near term. In the American context, the most well-known of these is William Miller, who in the spring of 1832 began spreading the word that Christ would return around 1843. Intrigued audiences pushed Miller to be more specific, and he eventually pinpointed the year between March 21, 1843 and March 21, 1844. When March of 1844 passed without incident, a follower of Miller’s went back to the drawing board and came up with October 22, 1844, the date that became famous as the “Day of Disappointment.”

Stephen O’Leary insists in his Arguing the Apocalypse that while the logic of apocalyptic rhetoric might be hard to follow, there is a logic to it. Camping’s method is no exception, on both counts. He cuts a caper across the bible and the human history of its interpretation, gleaning data points from archaeology and philology and inserting them into dizzying numerological and typological formulas. For instance, combining the year of Solomon’s death calculated by Old Testament scholar Edwin R. Thiele with his own reading of the generations of biblical kings and patriarchs, Camping dates the flood to 4,990 B.C., 7,000 years ago next year. Camping settles on 2011 as the end of time because in Gen 7:4, God warns Noah that the flood will begin in seven days, and he posits that this warning applies to the beginning of The End as well as to the beginning of the flood, and further that a day is a thousand years to God,.

Camping’s methods share some features with those of the Millerites, accounting for the shared fixation on the twenty-first day of the month. Also like the Millerites, public-relations innovators in the early 1840s, Camping’s followers are using the latest communications strategies to get the word out. Websites have sprung up to promote Camping’s predictions, offering streaming media content, a Twitter feed, and a downloadable browser toolbar which keeps the countdown to Christ’s return. The convinced can order free bumper stickers to warn the ungodly, although these come with an admonition about their use somewhat out of sync with the urgency of the task: “Bumper stickers are only offered for their intended purpose. In most cases it is illegal to put these stickers anywhere but on your own property. Please respect the laws and rights of others while warning about May 21, 2011 Judgment Day!”

Those unconvinced by Camping’s math must presume that, come next year, his predictions will share another feature with Miller’s: they will be proven wrong. However, having attracted even a small number of committed followers, Camping’s work is unlikely to be completely forgotten. While date-setting is obviously a high-risk enterprise, history shows that disappointment is rarely, if ever, absolute. Groups given a specific date on which to fixate have shown deep reluctance to let go of it even as it passes like any other day.

A remnant of Miller’s followers coalesced into the Seventh-Day Adventist Church, developing an eschatology that maintains that momentous events began in heaven when Miller said they would, regardless of our ability to perceive them. Camping himself has already been off once—in 1992 he published a book titled 1994? That eyebrow-arch of a question mark may have served him well, but so will his definitive stand on May 21, 2011. Turning a mere date into Doomsday changes that day by forcing an event most of us imagine as theoretical onto the calendar. The bus ads feature clip art of a hand marking May 21 in a date book, emphasizing just this mundane quality; it is written in right there, we imagine, with doctor’s appointments and soccer practices. In part because of that presence on the calendar, Doomsday becomes as inexorable as any other scheduled event, and so if we all wake up on May 22 as usual, at least some of Camping’s followers will not be wondering why nothing happened, but rather trying to understand what must have happened.

by Seth Perry

Seth Perry is a PhD candidate in History of Christianity at the University of Chicago Divinity School. Originally published in Sightings, from the Martin Marty Center at the University of Chicago Divinity School. Used with permission.

References

Mark Barna, “The end is not just nigh, it’s in May 2011: Springs woman touts Armageddon’s date ,” Colorado Springs Gazette, July 26, 2010.

Stephen D. O’Leary, Arguing the Apocalypse: A Theory of Millennial Rhetoric (Oxford University Press, 1998).

Ronald L. Numbers and Jonathan M. Butler, eds., The Disappointed: Millerism and Millenarianism in the Nineteenth Century (University of Tennessee Press, 1993).

[For more on Harold Camping's false prophecies and dangerous teaching, see Should We Leave Our Churches?]

Dad Rod Thursdays – 2010 Mockingbird Conference

Dr. Rod RosenbladtLast April, Dr. Rosenbladt joined C. FitzSimons Allison, David Zahl and others to speak at the 3rd Annual Mockingbird Conference, titled Guilt, Forgiveness and Freedom. You may know the crew over at the Mockingbird Blog from some of our prior blog posts. They offer a unique and fascinating take on contemporary media and icons through the perspective of the Christian faith and we always recommend you take a look.

Here is a short description they offer about their 2010 Conference:

Guilt, Forgiveness and Freedom are three words which carry enormous weight and power. They color our relationships (to put it mildly), they drive our decision-making, they inform many/most of our problems. And that’s just a start. This Spring in NYC we explored what Christianity has to say about these three deeply important realities, their dynamics and their implications. In other words, we looked at the mechanics of change (and the lack thereof) – personally, culturally and most crucial, theologically.

In this case, their 2010 Conference produced another great resource of Christ-centered preaching and teaching. They have made the recordings from their conference available for free on their website. On this “Dad Rod Thursday” we can’t help but recommend this free resource to you.

Finally, last week, we recommended that you listen to or read Dr. Rosenbladt’s The Gospel For Those Broken By The Church, now available for FREE. Don’t miss it!

The Cult of Personality

The following is by Rev. Kevin Efflandt, pastor of Zion URC in Ripon, CA and is used with his permission.  Rev. Efflandt blogs at Confessions of a Confessional Rev.


This morning, I came across something on Facebook that caught my attention. It was a Christian radio station in a place that I formerly lived, asking people what they appreciated most about their pastor. Here are some of the responses…

“He believes in us and our gifts! He and his wife (our worship Pastor) love getting to know everyone; we’re more like family than just a congregation. They love to plan potlucks, family community outreaches, and just ‘hanging out’ on a casual level.”

“My pastor is the funniest dude I know! So weird, and filled with energy when he’s teaching a sermon, it’s so easy to learn because he’s so weird!”

“We have a new pastor and we learn more about him every day! One Sunday he sang a solo! Who knew?? Then, last week, he played guitar too! And his wife was on keyboard!”

“All the pastors out at _______ Church are just amazing. They know how to relate the day’s sermon to our understanding and make us laugh the whole way through.”

“My pastor has the most amazing sense of humor.”

“I appreciate his transparency…he shares his own struggles with us and also that he is energetic and shares what the Holy Spirit tells him spontaneously.”

“Two things come to mind–1st: He has upgraded our sound system and brought our sound system into the current century! 2nd: His wife Lily has done a lot for our Youth group.”

He’s hilarious!”

So apparently, what people most appreciate in their pastor is a sense of humor, musical gifts, authenticity, and the ability to just “hang out.” Very simply, this is the cult of personality. If we like the guy, if he’s funny, hip, cool, then he’s a great pastor. The problem with this, of course, is that it has no correlation whatsoever to Scripture. For example, as I read the New Testament, I don’t see any of these characteristics in the apostle Paul. In fact, in 1 Corinthians 2, Paul says this…

“And I, when I came to you, brothers, did not come proclaiming to you the testimony of God with lofty speech or wisdom. For I decided to know nothing among you except Jesus Christ and him crucified. And I was with you in weakness and in fear and much trembling, and my speech and my message were not in plausible words of wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit and of power, that your faith might not rest in the wisdom of men but in the power of God.”

May God give us a greater desire to have pastors who preach Christ, rather than pastors who are funny and hip.


Editor’s Note: You might be interested in also reading W. Robert Godfrey’s article in Modern Reformation “The Myth of Influence”.

With God on Our Side

A new documentary looking at the relationship of American evangelicals to the modern State of Israel is being screened several nights this week in southern California.

With God On Our Side – Trailer 2 from Porter Speakman Jr on Vimeo.

For more on problems with Christian Zionism, you can read this “Open Letter” from 2002, signed by many evangelical and Reformed pastors and theologians including our own Mike Horton.

WHI-1019 | The Parables of Jesus (Part 2)

What is the point of the parables? Is there a moral to the story that we should all look for and attempt to follow? Is the point of the wicked tenants parable that we should all try to be good tenants, or is there something else going on here? On this broadcast, the hosts will discuss these questions as they unpack the parable of the wicked tenants and others related to it. And as they will show, Jesus and his forthcoming crucifixion at the hands of Israel’s unfaithful shepherds is really what these messages are all about.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

Kingdom, Grace, Judgment
Robert F. Capon
Knowing Scripture
R.C. Sproul
The Parables
Simon Kistemaker

PROGRAM AUDIO

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MUSIC SELECTION

David Helbo

Coming Soon! Justified, the MR book

“God justifies the ungodly”: Paul’s statement in Romans 4:5 has brought comfort and provoked controversy throughout the history of the church. Historically, most Protestants have seen the Reformation as a rediscovery of this gospel truth–indeed, justification as “the article by which the church stands or falls.” In our day, however, neither the Reformers’ account of the doctrine nor their appraisal of its significance can be taken for granted. Through various movements within Protestant theology and biblical studies, fresh (and not so fresh) challenges have made it imperative for us to reevaluate the Scriptures and the systematic as well as historical arguments that have been persuasive for so many Christians in previous eras.

Scheduled to be released at next month’s Evangelical Theological Society’s annual meeting, this book joins that contemporary conversation, bringing together voices from the pages of Modern Reformation magazine over the years. Like the magazine, this collection connects Lutheran, Reformed, and Baptist theologians, historians, and biblical scholars who are able to unpack important issues for thoughtful nonspecialists.

This collection covers a lot of ground: the relationship of justification to covenant (especially recent discussions between N. T. Wright and John Piper), the law, union with Christ, as well as sanctification. A final chapter considers the contemporary relevance of justification. If theology is for the church, then the gospel is surely a matter for all of God’s people to wrestle with together.

Each Friday until the ETS meeting in Atlanta, Georgia (November 17-19, 2010), we’ll post more information about this new book. Stay tuned!

Dad Rod Thursdays – The Gospel For Those Broken By The Church

We are introducing a new category here on our blog dedicated to Dr. Rosenbladt called “Dad Rod Thursdays.” As we are able, we will be featuring the works of Dr. Rosenbladt with some review and analysis, along with information about where you can access them. So without delay, here goes our first one!

Recently I had the chance to hear Dr. Rosenbladt give his lecture entitled The Gospel For Those Broken By The Church to a packed house. As I and my business partner, Patrick Kyle, sat and watched the impact of Dr. Rosenbladt’s words on the audience, I knew it was past time to give it away for free. Dr. Rosenbladt agreed, and so did the good folks at South Orange County Outreach (SOCO), who funded and recorded the presentation. So we are giving it away.

This lecture is a true tour de force–Dr. Rosenbladt at his finest. It may very well be that he will be known and remembered by many primarily for this seminal work. It was one of the reasons we created New Reformation Press, and it has been influential in the lives and ministries of many people. It has given hope to hundreds of bruised reeds and smoldering wicks barely clinging to faith in churches that have lost their way and lost sight of Christ. Others abandoned church long ago and considered themselves failed Christians. This is another word for them, not of cursing but of blessing.

This lecture was one of the main reasons our friend the InternetMonk, the late Michael Spencer, wanted us to put an ad for New Reformation Press on his blog, and he recommended it to his readers a number of times. The presentation speaks to many who find themselves in what Michael called the “Post Evangelical Wilderness.”

As we sat in the audience at the recent re-presentation of “The Gospel For Those Broken By The Church”, we watched as Dr. Rosenbladt read his script with tears in his eyes. Members of the audience openly wept.

If you will stop by and listen to the free MP3 or read the free PDF, I’m certain you will quickly understand why we think this lecture is so important.

I know this presentation will be of immense help to many, and I humbly ask your help in getting it out to those who need to hear it. Feel free to download, make copies and share them with others in their entirety, quote at length, link to, or print and hand it out. Additionally, in the not-too-distant future I will provide a link to a video version filmed in front of a live audience, including a question and answer session, which will be provided by Faith Lutheran Church in Capistrano Beach, California.

How is the kingdom coming?

From the Editor: As we have been learning, Jesus’ parables are set in the context of the inauguration of his Kingdom. In the current issue of Modern Reformation magazine Mike Horton answers a series of questions about the flow of redemptive history. What did the disciples expect the coming of the kingdom to be about? How does the kingdom that is present on earth with Jesus’ ministry relate to the Old Testament theocratic kingdom? What should we understand about our role in the uprooting of the kingdom of Satan?

The manner in which the demons respond to Jesus shows his authority over them, but it is not just a raw power: it is his coming in his kingdom of grace and forgiveness that they fear most. Satan and his emissaries are busiest not with plotting wars and oppression–these are symptoms of the sinful condition that human beings are capable of generating on their own. However, Satan knows that if the Messiah fulfills his mission, the curse is lifted, his head is crushed, and his kingdom is toppled.

All of Satan’s forces are deployed in this last battle for “all authority in heaven and on earth.” All of Jesus’ miracles are pointers to this saving announcement; they are not ends in themselves. The kingdom comes with words and deeds. In the miracles, it is said that Satan has bound these people (viz., Luke 13:11, 16). Christ is breaking into Satan’s territory, setting history toward a different goal, bound to his own rather than to demonic powers. This is why Paul’s call to spiritual battle in Ephesians 6 identifies the gospel, faith, the Word, and Christ’s righteousness as the armor and weapons. Satan’s energies are now directed against the church and its witness to Christ. The devil knows his house is being looted and his prisons are being emptied as the gospel is taken to the ends of the earth.

Whatever the salutary effects of this kingdom on the wider society, with Christians living as salt and light, this age cannot be saved. It is dying. Through his apostles, Christ declares to the churches, “Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ, who gave himself for our sins to deliver us from the present evil age, according to the will of our God and Father, to whom be the glory forever and ever” (Gal. 1:3-5). To be sure, the Spirit is also at work in common grace, restraining the spiritual entropy of this present evil age. However, the Spirit’s saving mission is not to improve our lives in Adam, under the reign of sin and death, but to crucify us and raise us with Christ. Paul reminds us that “the appointed time has grown very short.” We marry, live, and work in the world, but without anxious attachment to this present age: “For the present form of this world is passing away” (1 Cor. 7:31). Like God’s counsel to the captives in Babylon, Peter exhorts believers to “conduct yourselves with fear throughout the time of your exile, knowing that you were ransomed from the futile ways inherited from your forefathers, not with perishable things such as silver or gold, but with the precious blood of Christ” (1 Pet. 1:17-19, emphasis added). Fully involved with the common life of our neighbors, we are nevertheless pilgrims who, with Abraham, are “looking forward to the city that has foundations, whose designer and builder is God” (Heb. 11:10).

Instead of calling down God’s judgment and driving out the Gentile nations, Jesus commands us to pray for our enemies. “You have heard it said, ‘An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth’ [Exod. 21:24; Lev. 24:20; Deut. 19:21]. But I say to you, ‘Do not resist the one who is evil. But if anyone slaps you on the right cheek, turn to him your left’” (Matt. 5:38-39). God no longer sends plagues among the godless but “makes his sun rise on the evil and on the good, and sends rain on the righteous and on the unrighteous,” and he expects us to imitate his kindness (Matt. 5:43-48). This is not the time to judge our neighbors, but to take the log out of our own eye (7:1-5), to diligently seek God’s good gifts (vv. 7-11), to enter through the narrow gate (vv. 13-14), and to bear good fruit (vv. 15-27).

In fact, when Jesus went to a Samaritan village preaching the good news and was rejected, James and John wanted to call for fire to fall from heaven in judgment upon them. “But he turned and rebuked them. Then they went to another village” (Luke 9:51-56). Nicknamed “sons of thunder,” James and John were clearly looking for a kingdom of glory all the way to the very end (Mark 10:35-45). They even asked Jesus if they could be seated at his right and left hand at the presidential inauguration, but Jesus told them that they had no idea what they were asking: namely, crucifixion with Jesus (vv. 35-40). As such, there is no holy land over which to fight. There aren’t even holy places, shrines, or sanctuaries, since Christ and his people together form the end-time sanctuary. Jesus was announcing the arrival of the new covenant, which he would inaugurate in his own blood (Matt. 26:28).

Confusing Christ’s kingdom of grace with the Sinai theocracy was precisely the error that Paul addressed especially in Galatians. The kingdom of God in its present phase simply is the announcement of the forgiveness of sins and, on this basis, entrance into the new creation. The signs that Jesus performed were evidence that the age to come had indeed broken in on this present evil age. That is why he told John’s disciples to return with the news of healings, but especially that “the poor have the gospel preached to them,” adding, “and blessed is the one who is not offended by me” (Matt. 11:5). In other words, this is his mission in his earthly ministry and blessed are those who are not put off by it, expecting something other than this salvation of sinners. God’s kingdom is all encompassing, yet it arrives in two stages with Christ’s two advents.

When Christ returns in power and glory, there will be no need for the proclamation of the gospel, no need for faith or hope. There will be only love, since the reality will be evident and fully realized for everyone to see (1 Cor. 13:8-13; Rom. 8:19-25). “At present, we do not yet see everything in subjection to him. But we see him, who for a little while was made lower than the angels, namely Jesus, crowned with glory and honor because of the suffering of death, so that by the grace of God he might taste death for everyone” (Heb. 2:8-9).

It’s not that the horizon of Jesus’ contemporaries was too broad but that it was too narrow. While they were settling merely for a messiah who would restore geopolitical theocracy, Jesus Christ was bringing a universal dominion–not just overthrowing Gentile oppressors but casting out the serpent from heaven and earth forever: “For behold, the kingdom of God is in the midst of you” (Luke 17:21). In the present era, his kingdom of grace is a reprieve for repentance and faith in Israel and throughout all nations before Christ’s return. It is a new creation at work in the world–a new covenant yielding new relationships with God and with each other based on forgiveness and fellowship rather than on judgment and exclusion.

Continue reading here.

Other questions answered in the article include:

  • Should we interpret the Old Testament in light of the New Testament?
  • Does the Bible emphasize continuity or discontinuity in God’s plans?
  • Does the New Testament treat the new covenant church as the expansion of Israel (the old covenant church) or as two separate entities with different programs?
  • Are we to expect catastrophe and then Christ’s Kingdom, or is Christ’s kingdom present now in suffering and progress of the gospel to be consummated in glory at Christ’s return?

The Gospel According to Pixar

Some of our favorite people in the world are the folks at Mockingbird Ministries. Most of them are the kind of Episcopalians that give us hope for that long-suffering body of believers. We pray often that their tribe increases!  What really draws us to them is their creative, irenic, and fresh ways of connecting the great truths of the Law and Gospel to contemporary culture.

If we had a blog roll, their blog would be high on the list of blogs we frequent and recommend. We’ve also been privileged to work with them in some of their events: our own “Dad Rod” Rosenbladt was at their 2010 Mockingbird Conference.

Today we want to highlight their newest production, The Gospel According to Pixar.  This short study guide is an accessible and creative pairing of the great Pixar movies (Toy Story, Monsters, Inc., etc.) with biblical and redemptive themes. It’s perfect for a midweek study or youth group series and we want to see it gain widespread use among the churches and friends that look to White Horse Inn for materials to assist them in their own Reformation journey.

I recently asked the editors, Todd Brewer and David Zahl, a few questions about this book and their other projects.

Introduce our readers to Mockingbird. How does The Gospel According to Pixar reflect your ministry’s purpose?

Mockingbird is a ministry that tries to connect Christian faith with the realities of everyday life in as down-to-earth way as possible. Right now we do this primarily through web resources, conferences and publications. Whether it’s the music of Michael Jackson, the work of Alcoholics Anonymous, the mysteries of LOST, the social commentary in the New Yorker, or the poetry of T.S. Eliot, we listen with open ears to anything outside of the church world which might point to the old, old, story of God’s abundant grace and forgiveness for sinners through Christ. In many ways, The Gospel According to Pixar is much of the same. The films tell compelling stories about love, forgiveness, fear, loneliness, identity, etc. that provide vivid illustrations of how the Gospel interacts with real life.

Lots of movies have redemptive themes in them, what makes the Pixar films such a treasure trove of material?

First and perhaps most importantly, not all movies with redemptive themes are all that good. Pixar films are of undeniably high quality, from the scripting and voice-acting, to the art direction and thematic coherency, to the clever humor and emotional depth. They somehow manage to appeal to an incredibly broad audience, cutting across pretty much all demographics, without stooping to lowest-common-denominator gags. So they have already burrowed a deep channel into people’s hearts – our job is simply to connect that “Pixar place” with the Gospel.

Second, among the studios making “family films” these days, Pixar has an almost unique grasp on internal dynamics – their “anthropology” is refreshingly low. That is, the protagonists themselves tend to be their own worst enemies (Woody in Toy Story 2, Mr. Incredible in The Incredibles, Marlin in Finding Nemo, Remy in Ratatouille, the list goes on). In fact, because the primary conflicts tend to be so internal, the films are often criticized for having weak villains. It’s not a matter of a hero reaching deep inside themselves to realize their potential; instead, their adventures almost always humble them in some profound way, forcing them into a position of desperation (or repentance), where redemption, almost always in the form of some intervening event, can occur. In this sense, there’s a powerful death/resurrection thread that runs through their films.

Third and related, Pixar films touch on universal themes and concerns. They are interested in truth, in other words. Each character’s struggles and hopes become our own because they are our own. We want Wall-E to get the “girl”; we hope Marlin will lighten-up. We are swept up into the story so much that we see ourselves in the characters. So while Woody may be a pull-string toy cowboy, at its core his story of anxiety and salvation is one that indirectly resonates in a small way with our lives. The films speak on a number of different levels so that they unwittingly coax the heart and imagination of the audience. So while each movie is filled with meaning, they rarely feel like moral fables or didactic parables.

What effect have you seen this particular study have in the way that people understand and live out of the Gospel?

Well, people certainly enjoy having some fun with the Gospel. And Pixar movies are nothing if not fun. On a more serious level, we have noticed that the study has a decompartmentalizing effect. Despite the films’ fantastical elements, they are deeply concerned with the realities of loss, suffering, defeat, death even, and sometimes Christians can be very relieved to be reminded that the Gospel addresses reality, not just Christian reality. In other words, the very heartstrings that Pixar films pull on are the same heartstrings on which the message of the forgiveness of sins needs to be played. As we all know, religious folks, ourselves included, erect all sorts of religious defenses to the Gospel, often subconsciously – and I’ve noticed that they find the approach of this book helpful, that it can be an avenue for the Gospel to reach parts of the heart where the defenses are strongest. Non-believers really appreciate how we clearly love the films, and are not attempting to unfairly instrumentalize them, or assign Christian intent where there is none (which many such teaching series inadvertently do), but instead seeking to understand how the biblical diagnosis and understanding of life might resonate or interact with the Pixar one. The response has been really positive, across the board.

Do you have other “The Gospel According to…” studies available or in the works?

A few years back, we wrote a series called “The Gospel According to The Office” which people really enjoyed. It takes episodes from the first three seasons of the hit NBC TV show and located the frequently hilarious illustrations of human striving and delusion, and drew connections to the Christian message, which of course, addresses deluded and self-justifying people. It can be downloaded for free on our website www.mbird.com. We also recently completed a new series called “Good News for People with Big Problems,” which is our attempt at a heavily-illustrated basic course in Law/Gospel, theology-of-the-cross-leaning Christianity.

There are a bunch of other publications on offer, most recently a little publication called
Grace in Addiction: What the Church Can Learn from Alcoholics Anonymous but that’s not really a series. In the works right now is a series called “God Gave Rock N Roll To You” which should be available sometime next year. A similar series about Seinfeld has also been bandied about, but there are no firm plans as of yet.

WHI-1018 | The Parables of Jesus (Part 1)

Some say that Jesus taught in parables because this mode of communication is the most effective for large audiences. But is this really what Jesus was up to? What is a parable anyway, and why did Jesus use this particular method of teaching? On this program, the White Horse Inn hosts will answer these questions and more as they begin a new six-part series on the parables of Jesus.

RELATED ARTICLES

Exploring the Parables of Jesus
Michael Horton
Part 1 of a 6 part blog series
Hearing is Believing
Michael Horton
WHI Discussion Group Questions
(110kB PDF)

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

Kingdom, Grace, Judgment
Robert F. Capon
The Parables of Jesus
David Wenham
Interpreting the Parables
Craig Blomberg
Interpreting Parables
R.C. Sproul

PROGRAM AUDIO

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MUSIC SELECTION

David Hlebo

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